Vol 5 (2010)


Table of Contents


Eighth International Symposium on Arctic-Alpine Mycology (ISAM 8), Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, USA 2008 PDF
Cathy Crips, Joe Ammirati 1-8
The eighth International Symposium on Arctic-Alpine Mycology (ISAM 8) was held on the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, USA, August 3-10, 2008. A report on this symposium is given along with a list of participants, the group’s preamble, and references for proceedings of previous symposia published as a series of volumes on Arctic and Alpine Mycology 1-7. The contributions that follow in this issue of North American Fungi are the complete proceedings for ISAM 8 published here as Arctic and Alpine Mycology 8 (editors Cathy Cripps and Joe Ammirati). We dedicate this issue to two mycologists who worked in Arctic-Alpine Ecosystems: Meinhard Moser, Austria (1924-2002) and Orson K. Miller, Jr, U.S.A. (1930-2006).

Amanita in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone, USA: New records for A. nivalis and A. groenlandica PDF
Cathy L. Cripps, Egon Horak 9-21
A limited number of Amanita species have been reported from cold dominated arctic-alpine environments, primarily with dwarf and shrub willows. This includes reports from Alaska, Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Scandinavia, Scotland, the Alps, and Russia. Here we report Amanita nivalis, A. groenlandica f. alpina n. f. and A. vaginata above tree line in the Rocky Mountains with Salix reticulata, S. nivalis, S. glauca, and S. planifolia. The distribution of Amanita groenlandica is extended to the north-central Rockies, and more definitively to the Beartooth Plateau at 3,100 to 3,400 m a.s.l. A new alpine form is described for this arctic species. Amanita nivalis is confirmed from numerous cirques and high passes 3,600-3,900 m a.s.l. in the southern Rocky Mountains (Front Range, Sawatch Range, San Juan Mountains), adding a disjunct component to its circumpolar distribution. These localities are thousands of miles from the Arctic and are likely near the southern-most extent of its distribution in North America. Rocky Mountain species are reported in context with arctic-alpine Amanita species from the Northern Hemisphere.

Biogeographical patterns of arctic-alpine fungi: distribution analysis of Marasmius epidryas, a typical circumpolar species of cold environments PDF
Anna Ronikier, Michal Ronikier 23-50
The existence of an arctic-alpine element is well-known in the biogeography and taxonomy of fungi, however synthetic analyses concerning their global distribution, morphological variation and ecology are largely lacking. Here, we compile all available information including published data and herbarium material concerning Marasmius epidryas, a characteristic representative of arctic-alpine macromycetes which grows exclusively on dead woody tissue of Dryas species. Our primary aim was to obtain as complete a picture as possible of the known distribution of an arctic-alpine fungus. Additionally, we attempted to analyse the variation of morphological features, phenology and ecology throughout its range. According to our data, the species has been recorded from over 300 localities. Although the records are clearly biased due to an uneven concentration of mycological investigations, the fungus was found in all parts of its presumable circumpolar distribution outlined by presence of the host plant. The localities included main northern and high-mountain areas as well as peripheral, southernmost parts of the Dryas distribution in Europe (Balkan Mts.), North America (Rocky Mts. of Colorado) and Asia (Altai Mts.). However, it may be a rare species in some regions. Marasmius epidryas appears to occur in most types of vegetation harbouring its host, an important arctic-alpine dwarf shrub, and is noted as a dominant fungal element for some. No significant differences were found in phenology of M. epidryas between the alpine and the arctic sites, with most records in August. Similarly, although there is a significant variation in quantitative morphological characters, no particular geographical trends were detected.

Hebeloma hiemale Bres. in Arctic/Alpine Habitats PDF
Henry J. Beker, Ursula Eberhardt, Jan Vesterholt 51-65
Hebeloma hiemale Bres. is a frequently collected species and occurs with many hosts in a wide variety of habitats. It is an ectomycorrhizal species that has been recorded with a broad range of both deciduous and coniferous trees, including Salix and Populus. However, it is not generally regarded as an arctic/alpine fungus and we are not aware of any previous reports of H. hiemale in these habitats. During ISAM VIII 2008 this species was collected with Salix reticulata on the Beartooth Plateau in Montana above tree-line at 3000 m asl. We also report a number of other arctic or alpine collections of H. hiemale from Greenland, Svalbard, Iceland and the U.S.A. (Wyoming and Colorado). This is the first report of H. hiemale from the Rocky Mountain alpine zone.

Clavarioid-type fungi from Svalbard: Their spatial distribution in the European High Arctic PDF
Anton G. Shiryaev, Victor A. Mukhin 67-84
The list of fungi with club or coralloid-type (‘clavarioid’) basidiomes from the Svalbard archipelago presented here includes 22 species from 7 genera in several families of Basidiomycota. Nineteen of them are new for the region. Genera include Artomyces, Clavaria, Clavulina, Macrotyphula, Multiclavula, Ramaria and Typhula. A quantitative analysis is also presented on the distribution of these fungi on Svalbard in comparison to similar taxa in other high Arctic regions, such as the Novaya Zemlya Isles (Russia) and Yamal Peninsula (Russia). Data suggest that for fungi with ‘clavarioid’ basidiomes richness and diversity decreases with high latitude (towards colder regions) and also with distance from the warm influence of the Gulf Stream. This study found that fungi with club type basidiomes are a primary component of the non-gilled Basidiomycota in the Arctic region which is depauperate in ‘poroid’, ‘thelephoroid’ and ‘hydnoid’ fungi.

Larger fungi of the Canadian Arctic PDF
Esteri Ohenoja, Martti Ohenoja 85-96
In all 143 fungal taxa collected in the years 1971 and 1974 are presented from different habitats of the Arctic and Subarctic tundra in the Keewatin and Franklin areas of N.W.T., Canada and at Fort Churchill, Manitoba. Of the 143 species reported, 122 species are new in N.W.T. and Fort Churchill. The diversity of mycorrhizal species was highest in drier lichen-moss and moss tundra heaths, and in late snow patches, the most common genera being Cortinarius, Inocybe, Hebeloma, Lactarius, and Russula. The most frequent saprobic fungi were Hygrocybe, Arrhenia, Clitocybe, Galerina some of which are bryophilous and Helvella species. In the forest tundra, numerous species typical of conifer forests were found as mycorrhizal symbionts of Picea and Larix. These collections remain the primary source of information on macrofungi in this region.

Subgenus Mallocybe (Inocybe) in the Rocky Mountain alpine zone with molecular reference to European arctic-alpine material PDF
Cathy L. Cripps, Ellen Larsson, Egon Horak 97-126
The genus Inocybe (including subgenus Mallocybe) is a significant component of the ectomycorrhizal community in arctic and alpine habitats in terms of both diversity and distribution. Species are associated primarily with low woody shrubs of Salix, Betula and Dryas. There is evidence that shrubs are expanding in arctic-alpine habitats making the ectomycorrhizal fungi that support them of
high interest. Here we provide the first detailed report for six Mallocybe taxa with willows from the Rocky Mountain alpine zone (WY, MT, CO) including: Inocybe arthrocystis, I. dulcamara, I. leucoloma, I. leucoblema and in the I. fulvipes group, I. substraminipes and other taxa. Phylogenetic analysis matched Rocky Mountain specimens to arctic-alpine specimens from Scandinavia. ITS sequences of Kühner and Favre type specimens were used as references for several clades. Data suggest that these species have a broad intercontinental range in arctic-alpine habitats and a few are known from the subalpine. A key to Mallocybe species in the Rocky Mountains is provided along with type information.

Galerinas in cold climates PDF
Gro Gulden 127-157
The paper presents a key to 30 Galerina species known to occur in parts of the Arctic (Greenland and Svalbard), on the north Atlantic islands (Iceland and the Faroe Islands), and in European alpine regions. The key is accompanied by descriptions of the species and notes on subordinate and unclear taxa. Photos of most of the species and drawings of microscopic characters are provided for most of the species. The occurrence of the different species within the selected Arctic-alpine region is given in an accompanying table.

Lycoperdaceae (Agaricales) on the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A PDF
Taiga Kasuya 159-171
Ten species of Lycoperdaceae classified into three genera, Bovista, Calvatia and Lycoperdon are reported from the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains, U.S.A. All are new records for this alpine area. Among them, Lycoperdon frigidum is a new record for the lower 48 States. Also, an alpine record of Calvatia booniana extends the known habitat of this fungus in North America.

Additional notes on the Lycoperdaceae of the Beartooth Plateau PDF
Leo M. Jalink 173-179
Notes are provided for two taxa of the Lycoperdaceae collected in the alpine zone of the Rocky Mountains, Beartooth Plateau: Bovista pila is reported for the first time from this area. The studied material of Lycoperdon utriforme fits the concept of Calvatia hungarica Hollós. The new combination Lycoperdon utriforme var. hungaricum is formally introduced.

Notes on Mollisioid Ascomycetes from the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains USA PDF
Marijke Nauta 181-186
During a visit to the Beartooth Plateau, Rocky Mountains USA, several collections were made of inoperculate Ascomycetes. This article deals with some Mollisioid fungi, i.e., members of the family Dermateaceae, which are closely related to the core genus Mollisia s. l. Four collections on Salix twigs proved to belong to two different species of Mollisia, new to the Beartooth Plateau. The new combinations Mollisia salicis and Mollisia minutissima are presented.

Temperature acclimation effects on growth, respiration and enzyme activities in an arctic and a temperate isolate of Cenococcum geophilum Fr PDF
Robert K. Antibus 187-204
Growth and respiration of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with dwarf shrubs likely contribute significantly to carbon cycling in arctic tundra soils dominated by this vegetation type. Despite their importance little is known about how these fungi might respond to global warming. While previous studies have shown that some ectomycorrhizal fungi can tolerate or retain viability across a fairly wide range of temperatures little is known regarding their metabolic responses to temperature shifts. The present study was undertaken to examine the comparative physiological responses in vitro of arctic and temperate isolates of a common ectomycorrhizal fungus to shifts in growth temperature. Isolates of Cenococcum geophilum from Alaska and Maryland were grown at 12 and 20ºC in liquid culture to study the process of temperature acclimation. Measurements on each isolate at the two growth temperatures included linear growth rates, dry weight accumulation, oxygen consumption and the specific activities of the soluble enzymes glucokinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition the response to growth temperature of glucokinase kinetic parameters (Ea, Km and Vmax) were also evaluated. Increasing the growth temperature tended to decrease the length of the observed lag phase; however, the growth rates in dry weight at 20ºC closely paralleled those at 20ºC. Both isolates demonstrated lower respiration rates when grown at 20 versus 12ºC. Thus for oxygen uptake each isolate demonstrated a phenotypic response known as ideal rate compensation. That is growth at 20ºC resulted in oxygen uptake rates at 20ºC that were similar to those measured at 12ºC for 12ºC-grown mycelium. This strategy, if common in ectomycorrhizal fungi, would reduce the expected carbon demand placed on the host and decrease the amount of carbon dioxide released by respiration in response to anticipated increases in soil temperatures. Differences in overall respiration rates by 12 and 20ºC grown mycelium could not be explained by changes in activities of soluble enzymes examined. Likewise few differences were observed in glucokinase kinetic parameters associated with growth temperature. Examination of soluble enzyme activity ratios as influenced by growth temperature suggests the potential exists to alter relative fluxes through primary metabolic pathways and warrants further investigation. Future studies of temperature acclimation should examine a wider range of ectomycorrhizal fungi and employ techniques such as DNA microarrays and metabolomics.

Nitrogen concentration does not increase in ectomycorrhizal basidiocarps with increasing altitude PDF
Anna Liisa Ruotsalainen, Minna-Marrit Kytöviita 205-2013
Plants in arctic and alpine environments possess higher nitrogen concentrations (%N) than plants in warmer environments. High nitrogen content is considered an adaptation to nutrient poor and cold environments. Prior studies demonstrate that %N increases in plants with increasing altitude. Since fungal growth should also be limited by harsh environmental conditions that increase with altitude, it was hypothesized that fungi growing at higher altitudes would have higher %N than fungi at lower altitudes. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the total nitrogen concentrations in basidiocarps of two genera of abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi, Leccinum and Lactarius, growing at different altitudes (85 – 800 m a.s.l.) in several localities of the Fennoscandian subarctic. Contrary to our expectations, results show that nitrogen concentration in Leccinum decreases with increasing altitude, whereas there was no change for Lactarius. Thus results for fungi were decoupled from that of the associated plants. The %N in Leccinum basidiocarps was somewhat higher than that in Lactarius species (4.55 ± 1.15 and 3.50 ± 0.58, respectively). Future studies should include examination of species, host, and soil effects on %N, as well as isotope analysis of carbon and nitrogen in basidiocarps, soil, and root material.

Antifreeze activities of various fungi and Stramenopila isolated from Antarctica PDF
Nan Xiao, Shigeki Inaba, Motoaki Tojo, Yosuke Degawa, Seiichi Fujiu, Sakae Kudoh, Tamotsu Hoshino 215-220

We examined the antifreeze activities of culture filtrates from cold-adapted fungi and Straminopila isolated from terrestrial materials in Antarctica. All of the isolates could grow at -1º C on suitable media and antifreeze activities were detected in various taxa including: an isolate of an unknown species in Oomycota, an isolate of an unknown species in Blastocladiomycota, Antarctomyces psychrotrophicus, Penicillium camemberti (Ascomycota) and several basidiomycetous yeasts. Unique ice crystal structures in media and depression of the freezing point of water for some are presented as evidence of fungal antifreeze proteins that can protect cells in cold climates.